Category: 350MC


Evaluation 

Overall, I am incredibly proud with how my final presentation went. Despite my voice slowly dying during my speech, I feel I got my point across in a constructive and informative manner, that led to interesting discussion and questions once I was done. I answered all questions put to me fully and did not feel at any point like I had not done research relating in some way to the subject put forward to me. I perhaps spoke a little to quickly, but listening back to the video recording, this does not make me difficult to understand, though perhaps in the future I should attempt to slow down further as to not overwhelm my listeners with information, especially with such a ‘tough’ subject.

The research itself for this piece of work was difficult. I had occasions where I became so overwhelmed by the horrific imagery and descriptions I was having to look at that I would have to step away from my research to recompose. This is something I should keep in consideration in the future. While I still maintain that this is an incredibly important subject that needs to be discussed and researched further, I must keep in mind my own personal well-being. I feel despite these difficulties I have compiled an exhaustive list of references and evidence to support my paper. If I had longer to speak during this presentation, I would of liked to have gone into further depth regarding how rape culture affects social minorities specifically, and how photography influences this. I would include Transgender, queer and people of colour in this research, as currently I do believe that my presentation does come across as potentially ignorant of the dangers these people face from rape culture due to how society perceives and treats them in photography. On the other hand, I believe that alone would require an entirely separate presentation, rather than focusing on Photography and Rape Culture on the larger scale like I have.

I am happy with how my research has developed through this project. I have followed different paths, developed my paper as I have discovered new evidence and opinions, and kept my mind open to other bodies of thought on the subject.

In relation to my Final Major Project, this symposium has helped drastically as a grounding for my overall knowledge of the treatment of victims in society and how that affects them on a daily and long term basis. As a victim of rape I am intending to focus on my personal narrative for my FMP, and believe my research paper for this module has given me an overall head start in regards to  research. It has improved my confidence in my knowledge of the subject and my ability to talk about difficult subjects that are personal to me without becoming emotionally overwhelmed.

In conclusion, I feel this module has been a resounding success for me, and have created a body of work I can be proud of.

Video Of My Presentation 

Final Paper 

Shannon Ridgway states that the term Rape Culture refers to the ingrained cultural practices of our society that excuse, or otherwise tolerate sexual violence. It is used to talk about how collectively we think about rape.

This can manifest itself in a situation as people ignoring, trivialising, normalizing or joking about the subject of rape. (Everyday Feminism 2014)

Photography is an incredibly influential force in our society, and can influence rape cultures prevalence within it. I want to discuss the potential problematic discourse around the representation of women and rape culture through photography.

There is a long-standing relationship between commercial photography and sexism, with just two examples shown here. The objectification and humiliation of the woman in the Mr. Leggs advert is painfully apparent, with her being treated like a piece of decoration under the submission and will of the man. With the Broomsticks Slacks Advert, it is conveying a much darker message. The way the men are grabbing at the woman conjures thoughts of non consent, while the message below ‘Ring around Rosie, Or Carol, Or Eleanor, etc.’ suggests that the women you play this ‘game’ with are so unimportant that it doesn’t matter what their name is, or that it’s even worth learning it, so long as you as the consumer are getting what you want.
The way the models are being treated in these adverts reinforces a negative view of how it is deemed acceptable to treat women.

And despite the age of these adverts, the same imagery is still appearing in modern day advertisements, with similar, if not more so, sinister undertones.

Similar to the 1964 Mr Leggs Slacks Advert, the women in this advertisement is being treated as an object, another piece of furniture, and in the process is being dehumanised.

This is not an uncommon act in photography that is used for public platforms.
The animal rights group PETA has been widely criticised by feminists, and the media, for their sexist depictions of women, comparing them to animals and ‘pieces of meat’. The female body is being used to make a point, and in doing so they are being degraded to less than human.

While PETA and Details both have different motives for these adverts, they both play on the notion that women are objects, to be used and sexualised, as deemed necessary. They are reinforcing the complacency and acceptance of dehumanising imagery that perpetrates rape culture in society.
The Dolce and Gabbana Advert has strong parallels to the Broomsticks Slacks advert of 1967, both containing an obvious sexual element. The body language of this image is what makes this one particularly distressing. The men surrounding the woman are in dominant poses, with one pinning her to the floor, while the woman’s face is turned away from her aggressor, her legs tightly shut and her hips in a movement not dissimilar to an attempt to struggle. This body language gives all the cues of a non-consensual assault.
The moment captured in this advert is being sexualised and portrayed as a positive scenario, shown by the fact that this image is intended to make you want to buy a product.

And this isn’t the only time rape has been used as an aesthetic in commercial photography.

This image is from the fashion shoot ‘Wrong Turn’, by Raj Shetye. While not necessarily dissimilar to the Dolce & Gabbana picture, this more recent ad caused controversy based on the fact that it is inspired by the real event of the Gang Rape and murder of a young woman, on a bus in Delhi in 2012.
Raj Shetye has attempted to defend the shoot with multiple different excuses, for instance that ‘he’s putting a spotlight on the issue of violence against women; that he’s criticizing India’s caste system; the list goes on.’ (Bustle 2014) However, the problem with these arguments is that the violence in this photo, like the others shown in this presentation, is sexualised and geared towards the audience as an attractive and positive thing.

The men and women in these photographs are the societal concepts of the perfect man and woman, and created to look appealing to the target demographics. Instead of bringing the trauma of violence and rape to light, it is instead reinforcing rape culture in our society by glamourising it.
This behaviour does not just have a negative affect on woman. The article, ‘What Advertisements directed towards men are selling’, says that ‘we are regularly bombarded with messages selling the idea that masculinity is violent, physically aggressive and sexually domineering and that anger and stoic toughness are the only appropriate emotions for men to display.’ (Everyday Feminism 2013)

The regular display in photographs of Hyper-masculinity creates a dangerous link between sex and aggression that is reinforced as positive again and again by the constant streaming of images through mainstream media.

The glamourisation of violence and rape isn’t the only problem we face in our society from advertisements. This advert from Belvedere has instead decided to take the route of making a joke out of raping someone, deriving humour from the notion that the victim will attempt to fight back. Unlike the other photographs in this presentation, this image is probably the closest to a accurate portrayal of an attempted rape, the blurriness of the image adding a level of realism to the scenario. The viewer may look at this and laugh at the ‘joke’, considering it a harmless piece of fun. But it further normalises and excuses rape in our society, making the subject a punch line, instead of a serious issue that causes significant trauma and harm to survivors.

All the advertisements shown in this presentation are not accurate representations of rape. They are sexualised, glamourised and made humourous with the intention of selling a product, and with the high saturation of advertisements and photographs on public platforms, it is normalising the false representation of what rape is.

This photo was widely circulated on social media; it is of the unconscious body of the girl who was repeatedly gang raped in Steubenville. The photograph was actually posted by the perpetrators, showing her off in a manner that conjures imagery of how hunters hold their kill, with complete disregard and lack of respect for the victim. You can instantly tell a difference between this photo and the commercial photographs shown in previous slides, because real rape is not an entirely sexual crime, it’s a violent one. The victim here has been pixelated by authorities to protect her, which actually lends to the viewer being aware that this is a real human being who has suffered, and needs to be protected because of that. It’s not easy as the viewer to separate yourself from the connotations of this photograph, because unlike the advertisements, it’s a glimpse into the true horrors of rape.

Laurie Penny, for the New Statesman, called the Steubenville case ‘Rape Cultures Abu Ghraib moment, saying ‘It’s the moment when America and the world are being forced, despite ourselves, to confront the real human horror of the rapes and sexual assaults that take place in their thousands every day in our communities.’ (New Statesman 2013) She draws further comparisons, explaining, ‘Here we have incontrovertible evidence of happy young people not only hurting and humiliating others, but taking pleasure in it, posing with their victims. The Abu Ghraib torture pictures were trophies. The Steubenville rape photos are trophies. They’re mementoes of what must have felt, at the time, like everyone was having the sort of fun they’d want to remember, the sort of fun they’d want to prove to themselves and others later.’ (New Statesman 2013)

Despite the accurate comparison being made here between two violent events, this photograph is an incredibly rare thing to see, the only one to still be found online, while the Abu Ghraib photographs are still widely available.

 

Photographs of wars, violence and death are easy to find and are circulated as a way to draw attention to the atrocity of what happened; yet you do not see the same with rape.

Ariella Azoulay, photography theorist and Author of the Civil Contract of Photography, suggests this is because we do not consider rape a violent act, but a sexual one, and the taboo of speaking about it is heavily ingrained in our society. She explains that, ‘rape is not in principle devoid of image – the public gaze on image of rape is what’s missing.’ (Azoulay 2008: 251) The reasons usually given for the absence of rape images revolve around saving the victim further humiliation and a concern for the sexual connotations of the image to lead them to be used for pornographic use by disturbed individuals. However, Azoulay argues that ‘both assume that it is not a matter of violence employed against an ordinary citizen, causing her injury. Both thus make manifest the sexual aspect of rape and the normative system involved in it. Both reasons imply that it is impossible to rid rape of its sexual aspect, and both assume that exhibiting the image intensifies this aspect …’ (Azoulay 2008: 254)

The advertisements we are subjected to in everyday society reinforce the sexual aspect of rape while ignoring the violence of the act. With no societal gaze of actual images of sexual violence we are a receiving a one sided distortion that reinforces rape culture by normalising and sexualising rape.

Azoulay describes this societal view as ‘an unwritten prohibition on showing ‘real’ images of rape’, while, ‘’staged’ rape images are freely shown…’. (Azoulay 2008: 276)

This is supported by the few instances of ‘real’ rape photographs and their invisibility and lack of circulation in the public eye.

In 1937, during World War 2, Japanese forces moved into the Chinese City Nanking, and over the course of six weeks murdered half the population and raped anywhere between 30-80,000 women and children, killing many of their victims after the act. (History Date 2000)

 

The soldiers photographed the atrocities they committed, making Nanking one of the rare photographic documentations of rape available to the public. These photographs highlight the violence and dehumanisation victims of rape are subjected to. They are upsetting for the viewer, as the graphic nature and knowledge of what they are viewing drastically contrasts what is considered socially acceptable to view in our society in regards to rape.

The photographs from Nanking are photographically similar to the images from the concentration camps such as Auschwitz. Yet these images are not circulated or discussed in the general public like the holocaust photographs, which could be considered to be purely because of the ingrained aversion in our society to discussing rape.

Fred Ritchin argues that we as a society are oversaturated with images of violence, and have therefore become desensitised to them. (Archive 2013)

With this in mind, even if we can distinguish rape as a violent crime rather than a sexual one, would it have a negative affect if we pushed realistic images of rape into the public spotlight?

Azoulay argues that, ‘Breaking the taboo on showing images of rape will challenge the clear demarcation between images that are allowed to be shown and those that are not – the line of demarcation that distinguishes rape from the other horrors that afflict humanity and preserves women as the exception to the rule.’ (Azoulay 2008: 281)

With the potential discourse that could arise from showing rape photographs, some photographers are considering ways to bring rape forward into public view.

Project Unbreakable is a project by photography student Grace Brown, which began back in 2011. She explained in an interview with Huffington Post, ‘I created project unbreakable as a way of spreading awareness to an issue that isn’t talked about anywhere near as much as it should be’. (Huffington 2012)

 

Since then, the project has gathered noticeable headway; being featured in media outlets such a Glamour, Time, and The Guardian.

Brown has photographed over 600 survivors (Project Unbreakable 2015) while the addition of an option for survivors to submit their own photographs has extended its reach worldwide, with the projects Tumblr having a 3-5 month backlog of photo submissions from participants.

The photographs are intended to shed light on the trauma victims of sexual abuse face, both during and after the crime.

The combination of words and photos is what makes the project so powerful. When you use photographs you make it harder for the viewer to dissociate themself from the subject. It makes it more real and emotive when you can place a person within the context of the experience being described.

By letting the subject have control over what they write and how they appear in the photo, you are giving power back to victims who may feel like their power and control was taken from them. While the high proportion of submissions combats the trivialization of rape that is common within rape culture, the nature of how they are drawing light to the victims experiences forces a public gaze onto the issue, combatting the discourse of real rape images being suppressed while sexualized rape moments are not.

It is necessary to bring an accurate representation of rape to the forefront of public view to combat the problematic discourse of rape cultures representation that is consistently reinforced through mainstream advertisements. However there is a potential problem with oversaturating society with images of the moment of rape, further desensitising the population to the horrific nature of the act.

Grace Brown offers a solution to this by creating a platform for survivors to have control over revealing the realities of their experience without taking advantage or increasing the trauma for the victim. While it is not necessarily the only answer, it does begin to address some of the issues discussed while having the positive affect of letting rape survivors be the voice of their own experiences.

References (alphabetical names) 

Azoulay. A (2008) ‘The Civil Contract of Photography’. 1st edn. New York: Zone Books

Bhasin. K (2011) ’13 Most Offensive PETA Advertisements’. Business Insider [online] 12th October. Available from http://www.businessinsider.com/peta-shocking-controversial-ads-2011-10?op=1 [20th Oct 2014]

Brindle. M (2009) ‘BNTM Cycle 6’ Mathew Brindle [online] Available from http://www.matthewbrindle.com/filter/commercial/BNTM-Cycle-5 [28th Feb 2015]

Brindle. M (2009) ‘BNTM Cycle 6’ Mathew Brindle [online] Available from http://www.matthewbrindle.com/filter/commercial/BNTM-Cycle-5 [28th Feb 2015]

Borsodi. B (2009) ‘Girls Not Included’ Bela Borsodi Photographer [online] March. Available from http://www.belaborsodi.com/editorial/girlnotincluded#2 [28th Feb 2015]

Brown. G (2015) ‘Project Unbreakable Post’. [online] February. Available from http://projectunbreakable.tumblr.com/post/109915822482/hello-there-seems-to-be-some-discrepancies-going#notes [1st March 2015]
Foiret. C (2009) ‘State Of Emergency By Steven Meisel’. Trendland [online] 20th June. Available from http://trendland.com/state-of-emergency-by-steven-meisel/ [28th Feb 2015]

Heba. H (2013) ‘8 of the Most Controversial Fashion Images of the 2000s’ Bustle [online] 2nd November. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/4126-8-of-the-most-controversial-fashion-images-of-the-2000s [28th Feb 2015]

Lynch. A (2014) ‘Fashion shoot glamourising horrific Indian gang rape removed by photographer after widespread outrage’. Metro [online] 6th August. Available from http://metro.co.uk/2014/08/06/fashion-shoot-glamourising-horrific-indian-gang-rape-removed-by-photographer-after-widespread-outrage-4822854/ [20th Oct 2014]

Murdoch J (2013) ‘69,000 female, 9,000 male rape victims per year: get the full data’ The Guardian [online] available from http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/jan/11/male-female-rape-statistics-graphic [27th Feb 2015]

Nerdlove. Dr. (2013) ‘What Advertisements Directed Toward Men Are Really Selling’. Every Day Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/04/the-selling-of-masculinity/?utm_content=buffer19658&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer [20th Jan 2015]

Nudd. T (2012) ‘Belvedere Vodka Apologizes for Rapey Ad on Facebook’ Ad Week [online] 23rd March. Available from http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/belvedere-vodka-apologizes-rapey-ad-facebook-139162 [28th Feb 2015]

N/A (2014) ‘Statistics’ Rape Crisis [online] available from http://www.rapecrisis.org.uk/Statistics2.php [27th Feb 2015]

N/A (2012) ‘Delhi Bus Gang Rape Victim Has Intestines Removed As Shocking Details Of Assault Emerge’, Huffington Post [online] December 20th. Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/20/delhi-bus-gang-rape-victim-intestines-shocking-details_n_2340721.html [28th Feb 2015]

N/A (2013) ‘’There is no way you are a virgin. You have done this before’: Rape survivors share attackers’ words in project which breaks down taboos of talking about sexual abuse’. Daily Mail [online] 22nd September. Available from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2428853/Rape-survivors-bravely-confront-fears-publicly-sharing-details-darkest-moment-courageous-photo-project-uses-attackers-words-them.html [20th Oct 2014]

N/A (2000) ‘Genocide in the 20th Century’. History Place [online] N/A. Available from http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm [1st March 2015]

N/A (2009) ‘The Rape of Nanking, 1937’. Eye Witness To History [online] N/A. Available from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/nanking.htm [1st March 2015]

 

N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Daily Tune [online] N/A. Available from http://www.dailytune.net/news/us-defence-contractor-wants-abu-ghraib-lawsuit-scrapped/ [1st March 2015]

N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Chimp Planet [online] N/A. Available from http://chimpplanet.blogspot.co.uk/2013/09/abu-ghraib-torture-victims-to-pay-their.html [1st March 2015]

 

N/A (2013) ‘What Advertisements Directed Towards Men Are Really Selling’. Everyday Feminism [online] 21st April. Available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/04/the-selling-of-masculinity/?utm_content=buffer19658&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer [28th Feb 2015]

Penny. M (2013) Laurie Penny on Steubenville: this is rape culture’s Abu Ghraib moment’. New Statesman [online] 19th March. Available from http://www.newstatesman.com/laurie-penny/2013/03/steubenville-rape-cultures-abu-ghraib-moment [20th Oct 2014]

Pennington. L (2013) ‘Has PETA Gone To Far? Sexism, Pornography and Advertising’. Huffington Post [online] 7th January. Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/louise-pennington/peta-has-it-gone-too-far-sex_b_2425174.html [20th Oct 2014]

Ridgeway S. (2014) ‘25 Everyday Examples of Rape Culture’ Everyday Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/03/examples-of-rape-culture/ [27th Feb 2015]

Smith. M (ed.) (2004) ‘Encyclopedia of Rape’. 1st edn. Westport: Greenwood Press

Stampler. L (2012) ‘These Modern Ads Are Even More Sexist Than Their ‘Mad Men’ Era Counterparts’. Business Insider [online] available from http://www.businessinsider.com/these-modern-ads-are-even-more-sexist-than-their-mad-men-era-counterparts-2012-4?IR=T [20th Jan 2015]

Sanchez. E (2014) ‘4 Ways Sexist, Macho Culture Hurts Men’. Every Day Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/09/macho-culture-hurts-men/ [20th Jan 2015]

Thorpe. J (2014) ‘‘Wrong Turn’ Photo Shoot By Raj Shetye Glamorizes Gang Rape in India In The Worst Way’, Bustle [online] August 6th. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/34533-wrong-turn-photo-shoot-by-raj-shetye-glamorizes-gang-rape-in-india-in-the-worst-way [28th Feb 2015]

Tumblr (2014) ‘Project Unbreakable’. [online] available from http://projectunbreakable.tumblr.com [20th Oct 2014]

Worth. J (2013) ‘Stephen Mayes, Fred Ritchin and Jonathan Worth’. Archive [online] October 2013. Available from https://archive.org/details/MayesRitchinWorthFull [1st March 2015]

Warscapes (2014) Fashion and Rape Culture [online] available from http://www.warscapes.com/blog/fashion-and-rape-culture [20th Oct 2014]

References (Alphabetical Names) 

Azoulay. A (2008) ‘The Civil Contract of Photography’. 1st edn. New York: Zone Books

Bhasin. K (2011) ’13 Most Offensive PETA Advertisements’. Business Insider [online] 12th October. Available from http://www.businessinsider.com/peta-shocking-controversial-ads-2011-10?op=1[20th Oct 2014]

Brindle. M (2009) ‘BNTM Cycle 6’ Mathew Brindle [online] Available fromhttp://www.matthewbrindle.com/filter/commercial/BNTM-Cycle-5 [28th Feb 2015]

Brindle. M (2009) ‘BNTM Cycle 6’ Mathew Brindle [online] Available fromhttp://www.matthewbrindle.com/filter/commercial/BNTM-Cycle-5 [28th Feb 2015]

Borsodi. B (2009) ‘Girls Not Included’ Bela Borsodi Photographer [online] March. Available fromhttp://www.belaborsodi.com/editorial/girlnotincluded#2 [28th Feb 2015]

Brown. G (2015) ‘Project Unbreakable Post’. [online] February. Available fromhttp://projectunbreakable.tumblr.com/post/109915822482/hello-there-seems-to-be-some-discrepancies-going#notes [1st March 2015]
Foiret. C (2009) ‘State Of Emergency By Steven Meisel’. Trendland [online] 20th June. Available fromhttp://trendland.com/state-of-emergency-by-steven-meisel/ [28th Feb 2015]

Heba. H (2013) ‘8 of the Most Controversial Fashion Images of the 2000s’ Bustle [online] 2ndNovember. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/4126-8-of-the-most-controversial-fashion-images-of-the-2000s [28th Feb 2015]

Lynch. A (2014) ‘Fashion shoot glamourising horrific Indian gang rape removed by photographer after widespread outrage’. Metro [online] 6th August. Available fromhttp://metro.co.uk/2014/08/06/fashion-shoot-glamourising-horrific-indian-gang-rape-removed-by-photographer-after-widespread-outrage-4822854/ [20th Oct 2014]

Murdoch J (2013) ‘69,000 female, 9,000 male rape victims per year: get the full data’ The Guardian [online] available from http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/jan/11/male-female-rape-statistics-graphic [27th Feb 2015]

Nerdlove. Dr. (2013) ‘What Advertisements Directed Toward Men Are Really Selling’. Every Day Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/04/the-selling-of-masculinity/?utm_content=buffer19658&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer[20th Jan 2015]

Nudd. T (2012) ‘Belvedere Vodka Apologizes for Rapey Ad on Facebook’ Ad Week [online] 23rd March. Available from http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/belvedere-vodka-apologizes-rapey-ad-facebook-139162 [28th Feb 2015]

N/A (2014) ‘Statistics’ Rape Crisis [online] available from http://www.rapecrisis.org.uk/Statistics2.php[27th Feb 2015]

N/A (2012) ‘Delhi Bus Gang Rape Victim Has Intestines Removed As Shocking Details Of Assault Emerge’, Huffington Post [online] December 20th. Available fromhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/20/delhi-bus-gang-rape-victim-intestines-shocking-details_n_2340721.html [28th Feb 2015]

N/A (2013) ‘’There is no way you are a virgin. You have done this before’: Rape survivors share attackers’ words in project which breaks down taboos of talking about sexual abuse’. Daily Mail [online] 22nd September. Available from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2428853/Rape-survivors-bravely-confront-fears-publicly-sharing-details-darkest-moment-courageous-photo-project-uses-attackers-words-them.html [20th Oct 2014]

N/A (2000) ‘Genocide in the 20th Century’. History Place [online] N/A. Available fromhttp://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm [1st March 2015]

N/A (2009) ‘The Rape of Nanking, 1937’. Eye Witness To History [online] N/A. Available fromhttp://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/nanking.htm [1st March 2015]

 

N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Daily Tune [online] N/A. Available fromhttp://www.dailytune.net/news/us-defence-contractor-wants-abu-ghraib-lawsuit-scrapped/ [1stMarch 2015]

N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Chimp Planet [online] N/A. Available fromhttp://chimpplanet.blogspot.co.uk/2013/09/abu-ghraib-torture-victims-to-pay-their.html [1stMarch 2015]

 

N/A (2013) ‘What Advertisements Directed Towards Men Are Really Selling’. Everyday Feminism [online] 21st April. Available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/04/the-selling-of-masculinity/?utm_content=buffer19658&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer[28th Feb 2015]

Penny. M (2013) Laurie Penny on Steubenville: this is rape culture’s Abu Ghraib moment’. New Statesman [online] 19th March. Available from http://www.newstatesman.com/laurie-penny/2013/03/steubenville-rape-cultures-abu-ghraib-moment [20th Oct 2014]

Pennington. L (2013) ‘Has PETA Gone To Far? Sexism, Pornography and Advertising’. Huffington Post [online] 7th January. Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/louise-pennington/peta-has-it-gone-too-far-sex_b_2425174.html [20th Oct 2014]

Ridgeway S. (2014) ‘25 Everyday Examples of Rape Culture’ Everyday Feminism [online] available fromhttp://everydayfeminism.com/2014/03/examples-of-rape-culture/ [27th Feb 2015]

Smith. M (ed.) (2004) ‘Encyclopedia of Rape’. 1st edn. Westport: Greenwood Press

Stampler. L (2012) ‘These Modern Ads Are Even More Sexist Than Their ‘Mad Men’ Era Counterparts’. Business Insider [online] available from http://www.businessinsider.com/these-modern-ads-are-even-more-sexist-than-their-mad-men-era-counterparts-2012-4?IR=T [20th Jan 2015]

Sanchez. E (2014) ‘4 Ways Sexist, Macho Culture Hurts Men’. Every Day Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/09/macho-culture-hurts-men/ [20th Jan 2015]

Thorpe. J (2014) ‘‘Wrong Turn’ Photo Shoot By Raj Shetye Glamorizes Gang Rape in India In The Worst Way’, Bustle [online] August 6th. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/34533-wrong-turn-photo-shoot-by-raj-shetye-glamorizes-gang-rape-in-india-in-the-worst-way [28th Feb 2015]

Tumblr (2014) ‘Project Unbreakable’. [online] available from http://projectunbreakable.tumblr.com[20th Oct 2014]

Worth. J (2013) ‘Stephen Mayes, Fred Ritchin and Jonathan Worth’. Archive [online] October 2013. Available from https://archive.org/details/MayesRitchinWorthFull [1st March 2015]

Warscapes (2014) Fashion and Rape Culture [online] available fromhttp://www.warscapes.com/blog/fashion-and-rape-culture [20th Oct 2014]

Bibliography

My bibliography for the module, these are all the sources I have used throughout.

Corcoran M. (2012) ‘Images of Sexual Violence (1): Saying Things Kept Silent, Showing Things Kept Hidden’. Duck Rabbit [online] available from http://www.duckrabbit.info/2012/02/images-of-sexual-violence-1-saying-things-kept-silent-showing-things-kept-hidden/ [20th Jan 2015]

Worth. J (2013) ‘Stephen Mayes, Fred Ritchin and Jonathan Worth’. Archive [online] October 2013. Available from https://archive.org/details/MayesRitchinWorthFull [1st March 2015]

Wells. L (ed.) (2009) ‘Photography A Critical Introduction’. 4th edn. London: Routledge

 

Azoulay. A (2008) ‘The Civil Contract of Photography’. 1st edn. New York: Zone Books

Smith. M (ed.) (2004) ‘Encyclopedia of Rape’. 1st edn. Westport: Greenwood Press

 

Chang. I (1997) ‘The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II’. 1st edn. New York: Basic Books

 

N/A (2014) ‘Statistics’ Rape Crisis [online] available from http://www.rapecrisis.org.uk/Statistics2.php [27th Feb 2015]

N/A (2013) ‘An Overview of Sexual Offending in England and Wales’ GOV [online] available from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/an-overview-of-sexual-offending-in-england-and-wales [27th Feb 2015]

 

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Thorpe. J (2014) ‘‘Wrong Turn’ Photo Shoot By Raj Shetye Glamorizes Gang Rape in India In The Worst Way’, Bustle [online] August 6th. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/34533-wrong-turn-photo-shoot-by-raj-shetye-glamorizes-gang-rape-in-india-in-the-worst-way [28th Feb 2015]

N/A (2012) ‘Delhi Bus Gang Rape Victim Has Intestines Removed As Shocking Details Of Assault Emerge’, Huffington Post [online] December 20th. Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/20/delhi-bus-gang-rape-victim-intestines-shocking-details_n_2340721.html [28th Feb 2015]

Nelson. D (2013) ‘Rape cases in Delhi double after gang rape of student on bus’, Telegraph [online] October 31st. Available from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/10417749/Rape-cases-in-Delhi-double-after-gang-rape-of-student-on-bus.html [28th Feb 2015]

Bhasin. K (2011) ’13 Most Offensive PETA Advertisements’. Business Insider [online] 12th October. Available from http://www.businessinsider.com/peta-shocking-controversial-ads-2011-10?op=1 [20th Oct 2014]

Pennington. L (2013) ‘Has PETA Gone To Far? Sexism, Pornography and Advertising’. Huffington Post [online] 7th January. Available from http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/louise-pennington/peta-has-it-gone-too-far-sex_b_2425174.html [20th Oct 2014]

Brindle. M (2009) ‘BNTM Cycle 6’ Mathew Brindle [online] Available from http://www.matthewbrindle.com/filter/commercial/BNTM-Cycle-5 [28th Feb 2015]

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Everyday Media Sexism [2014] ‘Everyday Media Sexism’ [online] available from http://www.everydaymediasexism.org.uk/ [20th Oct 2014]

Conway. D (2013) The Next Time Someone Says Sexism Isn’t Real, Show Them These Shocking Role-Reversal Images’. Upworthy [online] N/A. Available from http://www.upworthy.com/the-next-time-someone-says-sexism-isnt-real-show-them-these-shocking-role-reversal-images?g=2&c=ufb1 [20th Oct 2014]
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Heba. H (2013) ‘8 of the Most Controversial Fashion Images of the 2000s’ Bustle [online] 2nd November. Available from http://www.bustle.com/articles/4126-8-of-the-most-controversial-fashion-images-of-the-2000s [28th Feb 2015]

Borsodi. B (2009) ‘Girls Not Included’ Bela Borsodi Photographer [online] March. Available from http://www.belaborsodi.com/editorial/girlnotincluded#2 [28th Feb 2015]

Nudd. T (2012) ‘Belvedere Vodka Apologizes for Rapey Ad on Facebook’ Ad Week [online] 23rd March. Available from http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/belvedere-vodka-apologizes-rapey-ad-facebook-139162 [28th Feb 2015]

Gianatasio. D (2012) ‘Actress in Belvedere Vodka Rape Ad Files Lawsuit’ Ad Week [online] 2nd April. Available from http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/actress-belvedere-vodka-rape-ad-files-lawsuit-139346 [28th Feb 2015]
Stampler. L (2012) ‘These Modern Ads Are Even More Sexist Than Their ‘Mad Men’ Era Counterparts’. Business Insider [online] available from http://www.businessinsider.com/these-modern-ads-are-even-more-sexist-than-their-mad-men-era-counterparts-2012-4?IR=T [20th Jan 2015]

 

Warscapes (2014) Fashion and Rape Culture [online] available from http://www.warscapes.com/blog/fashion-and-rape-culture [20th Oct 2014]

N/A (2014) ‘Reddit has a ‘pro-rape’ message board’. Cosmopolitan [online] available from http://www.cosmopolitan.com.au/health-lifestyle/lifestyle/2014/10/reddit-pro-rape-message-board/?adbsc=soc_20141011_33261996&utm_campaign=soc.fb.141010.sc%3Afb%3Areddit&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook [20th Jan 2015]

 

Ridgeway S. (2014) ‘25 Everyday Examples of Rape Culture’ Everyday Feminism [online] available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2014/03/examples-of-rape-culture/ [27th Feb 2015]

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Tumblr [2014] This Is Rape Culture [online] available from http://thisisrapeculture.tumblr.com [20th Oct 2014]

 

Holpuch. A and Woolf. N (2014) ‘Feminists rally around Emma Watson after nude photos threats online’. The Guardian [online] available from http://www.theguardian.com/film/2014/sep/23/feminists-rally-emma-watson-4chan-nude-photo-threats [20th Jan 2015]

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N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Daily Tune [online] N/A. Available from http://www.dailytune.net/news/us-defence-contractor-wants-abu-ghraib-lawsuit-scrapped/ [1st March 2015]

N/A (2003) ‘Prisoner abuse and torture scandal’. Chimp Planet [online] N/A. Available from http://chimpplanet.blogspot.co.uk/2013/09/abu-ghraib-torture-victims-to-pay-their.html [1st March 2015]

Moss. C (2014) ‘Displays of Hyper-Masculinity in Amateur Photography’. Charlotte Sometimes [online] available from http://charlottesometimes.co.uk/2014/10/displays-hyper-masculinity-amateur-photography/ [20th Jan 2015]

 

N/A (2013) ‘What Advertisements Directed Towards Men Are Really Selling’. Everyday Feminism [online] 21st April. Available from http://everydayfeminism.com/2013/04/the-selling-of-masculinity/?utm_content=buffer19658&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer [28th Feb 2015]

Here is my final script with accompanying slides.

SLIDE 1


Introduction – SLIDE 2

Shannon Ridgway states that the term Rape Culture refers to the ingrained cultural practices of our society that excuse, or otherwise tolerate sexual violence. It is used to talk about how collectively we think about rape.

This can manifest itself in a situation as people ignoring, trivialising, normalizing or joking about the subject of rape. (Everyday Feminism 2014)

Photography is an incredibly influential force in our society, and can influence rape cultures prevalence within it. I want to discuss the potential problematic discourse around the representation of women and rape culture through photography.

Media and Advertising – SLIDE 3

There is a long-standing relationship between commercial photography and sexism, with just two examples shown here. The objectification and humiliation of the woman in the Mr. Leggs advert is painfully apparent, with her being treated like a piece of decoration under the submission and will of the man. With the Broomsticks Slacks Advert, it is conveying a much darker message. The way the men are grabbing at the woman conjures thoughts of non consent, while the message below ‘Ring around Rosie, Or Carol, Or Eleanor, etc.’ suggests that the women you play this ‘game’ with are so unimportant that it doesn’t matter what their name is, or that it’s even worth learning it, so long as you as the consumer are getting what you want.
The way the models are being treated in these adverts reinforces a negative view of how it is deemed acceptable to treat women.

And despite the age of these adverts, the same imagery is still appearing in modern day advertisements, with similar, if not more so, sinister undertones.
SLIDE 4
Similar to the 1964 Mr Leggs Slacks Advert, the women in this advertisement is being treated as an object, another piece of furniture, and in the process is being dehumanised.

This is not an uncommon act in photography that is used for public platforms.

SLIDE 5
The animal rights group PETA has been widely criticised by feminists, and the media, for their sexist depictions of women, comparing them to animals and ‘pieces of meat’. The female body is being used to make a point, and in doing so they are being degraded to less than human.

While PETA and Details both have different motives for these adverts, they both play on the notion that women are objects, to be used and sexualised, as deemed necessary. They are reinforcing the complacency and acceptance of dehumanising imagery that perpetrates rape culture in society.

SLIDE 6
The Dolce and Gabbana Advert has strong parallels to the Broomsticks Slacks advert of 1967, both containing an obvious sexual element. The body language of this image is what makes this one particularly distressing. The men surrounding the woman are in dominant poses, with one pinning her to the floor, while the woman’s face is turned away from her aggressor, her legs tightly shut and her hips in a movement not dissimilar to an attempt to struggle. This body language gives all the cues of a non-consensual assault.
The moment captured in this advert is being sexualised and portrayed as a positive scenario, shown by the fact that this image is intended to make you want to buy a product.

And this isn’t the only time rape has been used as an aesthetic in commercial photography.

SLIDE 7

 

This image is from the fashion shoot ‘Wrong Turn’, by Raj Shetye. While not necessarily dissimilar to the Dolce & Gabbana picture, this more recent ad caused controversy based on the fact that it is inspired by the real event of the Gang Rape and murder of a young woman, on a bus in Delhi in 2012.
Raj Shetye has attempted to defend the shoot with multiple different excuses, for instance that ‘he’s putting a spotlight on the issue of violence against women; that he’s criticizing India’s caste system; the list goes on.’ (Bustle 2014) However, the problem with these arguments is that the violence in this photo, like the others shown in this presentation, is sexualised and geared towards the audience as an attractive and positive thing.

The men and women in these photographs are the societal concepts of the perfect man and woman, and created to look appealing to the target demographics. Instead of bringing the trauma of violence and rape to light, it is instead reinforcing rape culture in our society by glamourising it.
This behaviour does not just have a negative affect on woman. The article, ‘What Advertisements directed towards men are selling’, says that ‘we are regularly bombarded with messages selling the idea that masculinity is violent, physically aggressive and sexually domineering and that anger and stoic toughness are the only appropriate emotions for men to display.’ (Everyday Feminism 2013)

The regular display in photographs of Hyper-masculinity creates a dangerous link between sex and aggression that is reinforced as positive again and again by the constant streaming of images through mainstream media.

SLIDE 8

The glamourisation of violence and rape isn’t the only problem we face in our society from advertisements. This advert from Belvedere has instead decided to take the route of making a joke out of raping someone, deriving humour from the notion that the victim will attempt to fight back. Unlike the other photographs in this presentation, this image is probably the closest to a accurate portrayal of an attempted rape, the blurriness of the image adding a level of realism to the scenario. The viewer may look at this and laugh at the ‘joke’, considering it a harmless piece of fun. But it further normalises and excuses rape in our society, making the subject a punch line, instead of a serious issue that causes significant trauma and harm to survivors.

All the advertisements shown in this presentation are not accurate representations of rape. They are sexualised, glamourised and made humourous with the intention of selling a product, and with the high saturation of advertisements and photographs on public platforms, it is normalising the false representation of what rape is.

Real Rape Photos – SLIDE 9

This photo was widely circulated on social media; it is of the unconscious body of the girl who was repeatedly gang raped in Steubenville. The photograph was actually posted by the perpetrators, showing her off in a manner that conjures imagery of how hunters hold their kill, with complete disregard and lack of respect for the victim. You can instantly tell a difference between this photo and the commercial photographs shown in previous slides, because real rape is not an entirely sexual crime, it’s a violent one. The victim here has been pixelated by authorities to protect her, which actually lends to the viewer being aware that this is a real human being who has suffered, and needs to be protected because of that. It’s not easy as the viewer to separate yourself from the connotations of this photograph, because unlike the advertisements, it’s a glimpse into the true horrors of rape.
SLIDE 10

Laurie Penny, for the New Statesman, called the Steubenville case ‘Rape Cultures Abu Ghraib moment, saying ‘It’s the moment when America and the world are being forced, despite ourselves, to confront the real human horror of the rapes and sexual assaults that take place in their thousands every day in our communities.’ (New Statesman 2013) She draws further comparisons, explaining, ‘Here we have incontrovertible evidence of happy young people not only hurting and humiliating others, but taking pleasure in it, posing with their victims. The Abu Ghraib torture pictures were trophies. The Steubenville rape photos are trophies. They’re mementoes of what must have felt, at the time, like everyone was having the sort of fun they’d want to remember, the sort of fun they’d want to prove to themselves and others later.’ (New Statesman 2013)

Despite the accurate comparison being made here between two violent events, this photograph is an incredibly rare thing to see, the only one to still be found online, while the Abu Ghraib photographs are still widely available.

SLIDE 11

 

Photographs of wars, violence and death are easy to find and are circulated as a way to draw attention to the atrocity of what happened; yet you do not see the same with rape.

Ariella Azoulay, photography theorist and Author of the Civil Contract of Photography, suggests this is because we do not consider rape a violent act, but a sexual one, and the taboo of speaking about it is heavily ingrained in our society. She explains that, ‘rape is not in principle devoid of image – the public gaze on image of rape is what’s missing.’ (Azoulay 2008: 251) The reasons usually given for the absence of rape images revolve around saving the victim further humiliation and a concern for the sexual connotations of the image to lead them to be used for pornographic use by disturbed individuals. However, Azoulay argues that ‘both assume that it is not a matter of violence employed against an ordinary citizen, causing her injury. Both thus make manifest the sexual aspect of rape and the normative system involved in it. Both reasons imply that it is impossible to rid rape of its sexual aspect, and both assume that exhibiting the image intensifies this aspect …’ (Azoulay 2008: 254)

The advertisements we are subjected to in everyday society reinforce the sexual aspect of rape while ignoring the violence of the act. With no societal gaze of actual images of sexual violence we are a receiving a one sided distortion that reinforces rape culture by normalising and sexualising rape.

Azoulay describes this societal view as ‘an unwritten prohibition on showing ‘real’ images of rape’, while, ‘’staged’ rape images are freely shown…’. (Azoulay 2008: 276)

This is supported by the few instances of ‘real’ rape photographs and their invisibility and lack of circulation in the public eye.

Nanking – SLIDE 12

 

In 1937, during World War 2, Japanese forces moved into the Chinese City Nanking, and over the course of six weeks murdered half the population and raped anywhere between 30-80,000 women and children, killing many of their victims after the act. (History Date 2000)

 

SLIDE 13

 

The soldiers photographed the atrocities they committed, making Nanking one of the rare photographic documentations of rape available to the public. These photographs highlight the violence and dehumanisation victims of rape are subjected to. They are upsetting for the viewer, as the graphic nature and knowledge of what they are viewing drastically contrasts what is considered socially acceptable to view in our society in regards to rape.

SLIDE 14

 

The photographs from Nanking are photographically similar to the images from the concentration camps such as Auschwitz. Yet these images are not circulated or discussed in the general public like the holocaust photographs, which could be considered to be purely because of the ingrained aversion in our society to discussing rape.

Fred Ritchin argues that we as a society are oversaturated with images of violence, and have therefore become desensitised to them. (Archive 2013)

With this in mind, even if we can distinguish rape as a violent crime rather than a sexual one, would it have a negative affect if we pushed realistic images of rape into the public spotlight?

Azoulay argues that, ‘Breaking the taboo on showing images of rape will challenge the clear demarcation between images that are allowed to be shown and those that are not – the line of demarcation that distinguishes rape from the other horrors that afflict humanity and preserves women as the exception to the rule.’ (Azoulay 2008: 281)

With the potential discourse that could arise from showing rape photographs, some photographers are considering ways to bring rape forward into public view.

Project Unbreakable – SLIDE 15

Project Unbreakable is a project by photography student Grace Brown, which began back in 2011. She explained in an interview with Huffington Post, ‘I created project unbreakable as a way of spreading awareness to an issue that isn’t talked about anywhere near as much as it should be’. (Huffington 2012)

SLIDE 16

 

Since then, the project has gathered noticeable headway; being featured in media outlets such a Glamour, Time, and The Guardian.

Brown has photographed over 600 survivors (Project Unbreakable 2015) while the addition of an option for survivors to submit their own photographs has extended its reach worldwide, with the projects Tumblr having a 3-5 month backlog of photo submissions from participants.

SLIDE 17

 

The photographs are intended to shed light on the trauma victims of sexual abuse face, both during and after the crime.

The combination of words and photos is what makes the project so powerful. When you use photographs you make it harder for the viewer to dissociate themself from the subject. It makes it more real and emotive when you can place a person within the context of the experience being described.

By letting the subject have control over what they write and how they appear in the photo, you are giving power back to victims who may feel like their power and control was taken from them. While the high proportion of submissions combats the trivialization of rape that is common within rape culture, the nature of how they are drawing light to the victims experiences forces a public gaze onto the issue, combatting the discourse of real rape images being suppressed while sexualized rape moments are not.

It is necessary to bring an accurate representation of rape to the forefront of public view to combat the problematic discourse of rape cultures representation that is consistently reinforced through mainstream advertisements. However there is a potential problem with oversaturating society with images of the moment of rape, further desensitising the population to the horrific nature of the act.

Grace Brown offers a solution to this by creating a platform for survivors to have control over revealing the realities of their experience without taking advantage or increasing the trauma for the victim. While it is not necessarily the only answer, it does begin to address some of the issues discussed while having the positive affect of letting rape survivors be the voice of their own experiences.

SLIDE 18

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We did a practice run through of the Symposium, and I was very happy with how mine went. I only got told to tweak a few things rather than make any drastic changes, so have written down my notes on my script below and begun to make adjustments. (My video was struggling to load, so I just have a single still and the audio instead)

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350MC: Draft Three

Third draft of my paper. Mainly just small tweaks now, and began timing myself on read throughs.

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350MC: Draft Two

This is my second draft of my paper, including suggested changes, additions to the advertisement section, and a start on my writing regarding Nanking.

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350MC: Draft One

My first draft of my essay, with suggestions by lecturer Caroline.

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350MC: Fred Ritchin

https://archive.org/details/MayesRitchinWorthFull

Listening to the the above interview with Stephen Mayes, Fred Ritchin and Jonathan Worth, I noticed that Ritchin comments on how the mass sharing of images online has caused a numbness towards to violent photographs. He also points out that being bombarded with shocking imagery puts society into a state of complacency, they don’t feel like they can do anything because it has already happened. And the ability to like and share is like a placebo, it makes society feel like it is doing something when it isn’t.

I think this is an important conversation to bring up in my paper. As it contrasts the idea that Azoulay puts forward that removing the barriers of viewing images of rape would help rape societies views of rape, and therefore rape culture.

This also places further positive light on Project Unbreakable, as it gives a solution to the potential problematic discourse of placing images of the moment of real rape into public view.

After reading Ariella Azoulays book ‘The Civil Contract of Photography’ I decided research Nanking, as it seemed like an important moment in the history of rape that she references during her chapter on rape and photography.

After my research I was absolutely horrified by the details of what happened in Nanking, and even more shocked that it seemed to be something that is relatively unheard of by many people. Despite the images I found being on the same level of violence as other imagery of war from the same time (1937, WW2) the images are not spoken about or as highly viewed to the same degree as, for instance, pictures from Auschwitz.

Nanking is one of the rare photographic evidences of Rape available to the public.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_Nanking_(book)

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm

In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China’s capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.

After the destruction of the POWs, the soldiers turned their attention to the women of Nanking and an outright animalistic hunt ensued. Old women over the age of 70 as well as little girls under the age of 8 were dragged off to be sexually abused. More than 20,000 females (with some estimates as high as 80,000) were gang-raped by Japanese soldiers, then stabbed to death with bayonets or shot so they could never bear witness.

Pregnant women were not spared. In several instances, they were raped, then had their bellies slit open and the fetuses torn out. Sometimes, after storming into a house and encountering a whole family, the Japanese forced Chinese men to rape their own daughters, sons to rape their mothers, and brothers their sisters, while the rest of the family was made to watch.

Nanking is a horrific event of serious historical significance. The reason we have photographs of the rapes that occurred is due to the soldiers committing the rapes photographing their victims during the traumas.

We can draw similarities here to Steubenville and Abu Ghraib. Once again these images are only available because it was in fact the perpetrators who took them as apparent trophies of their actions.

Chinese_old_woman_raped_and_killed_by_Japanese_at_Tai'erzhuang  NankingUntitledNanking

We can draw similarities to the images from Nanking above to the horrific photographs from Auschwitz. We can draw the conclusion that the reason why one is more spoken about and viewed than the other is because of the ingrained cultural aversion to talking about rape.

Untitled2 Auschwitz

I think Nanking is an important piece of evidence for my paper that I need to include. The images are potentially incredibly upsetting, so I will perhaps need to place a trigger warning at the beginning of my presentation to warn people of potential upset.

The Civil Contract of Photography is a groundbreaking book by Ariella Azoulay that looks at the ethics of photography and it’s relation to society and history.

Her chapter ‘Has anyone ever seen a photograph of a rape?’, directly relates to what I am focusing on in my presentation. I have been reading it in depth and making notes on how it relates to my current research and what opinions and thoughts it has caused me to have in relation to rape culture and photography.

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Points I have taken from Ariella Azoulays writing: 

  • We see images of murder and violence and they become iconic. Be images of rape do not. Because people consider them sexual instead of violent.
  • Excuses for the lack of imagery of rape revolve around protecting the victim from further harm or concern for the images being used for pornographic purposes.
  • ^ Both reasons reinforce the sexual aspect of rape and ignore the violent aspect of it.
  • You cannot photograph the whole moment of rape, just parts of it. The before, after or during.
  • If you show images of rape is won’t eradicate it, but will perhaps change public opinion of it.
  • Rape is not an imageless crime, the public gaze on rape is what is missing.

How is relates to my other research

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  • There is ‘an unwritten prohibition on showing ‘real’ images of rape’, while, ‘’staged’ rape images are freely shown…’
  • rape is not in principle devoid of image – the public gaze on image of rape is what’s missing.’ with this in mind, the images of glamourised rape we see in advertising are giving society a one sided, distorted, view of what rape is like
  • the glamorised images we are subjected to ignore the violent elements or rape and purely enforce the sexual

Real rape

  • ‘Breaking the taboo on showing images of rape will challenge the clear demarcation between images that are allowed to be shown and those that are not – the line of demarcation that distinguishes rape from the other horrors that afflict humanity and preserves women as the exception to the rule.’
    So showing real images of rape in society would combat the distorted view of rape reinforced by rape culture. And while it would not necessarily stop rape from happening, it would make society more understanding of the violence and trauma of rape.
  • Why the Steubenville rape photo is important
  • Nanking – research this! There are pictures in the book, and Azoulay talks about it as a rare moment of rape images being publicly available.